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Monday, July 27, 2020 | History

2 edition of Temperature and time effects in the dielectric breakdown of sodium chloride and perspex. found in the catalog.

Temperature and time effects in the dielectric breakdown of sodium chloride and perspex.

D. B. Watson

Temperature and time effects in the dielectric breakdown of sodium chloride and perspex.

by D. B. Watson

  • 173 Want to read
  • 36 Currently reading

Published by University ofSalford in Salford .
Written in English


Edition Notes

PhD thesis, Electrical Engineering.

SeriesD2314/72
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL19960713M

Aluminum Oxide, Al 2 O 3 Ceramic Properties. Alumina is one of the most cost effective and widely used material in the family of engineering ceramics. The raw materials from which this high performance technical grade ceramic is made are readily available and reasonably priced, resulting in good value for the cost in fabricated alumina shapes. Polyvinyl chloride (colloquial: polyvinyl, vinyl; abbreviated: PVC) is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer (after polyethylene and polypropylene).About 40 million tons of PVC are produced each year. PVC comes in two basic forms: rigid .

Dielectric loss factor is a key parameter for insulating nanofluids. In fact, many high breakdown voltage nanofluids have been prepared but they tend to have high dielectric loss [], especially for nanoparticles with high relative instance, the relative permittivity of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles is 80 [], much higher than that of insulating oil, and this will lead to a significant. The table below contains links to refractive index data for common materials. Each material in the database has refractive index listed as a function of wavelength over a range typically required for thin-film thickness measurement.

  Optimum Temperature The incubation temperature of B. subtilis has an effect on its ability to produce PGA. From figure (14), it seems that 30 C is suitable for the PGA production. Time of Fermentation The period of incubation have affected the amount of PGA produced. With pressurized steam, however, the effects increase as steam pressure increases. High pressure steam at temperatures over °C causes breakdown of the siloxane polymer and a decline in the properties of the rubber. This effect can be ameliorated by adjusting the silicone rubber formula, selecting a proper curing agent, and/or post-curing.


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Temperature and time effects in the dielectric breakdown of sodium chloride and perspex by D. B. Watson Download PDF EPUB FB2

Temperature and time effects in the dielectric breakdown of sodium chloride and perspex. Author: Watson, D. ISNI: Awarding Body: University of Salford Current Institution: University of Salford Date of Award: Availability of Full Text.

This study evaluated the effects of inorganic salts (calcium chloride and sodium chloride, 0–1 M) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at MPa on the structural, physicochemical and. @article{osti_, title = {Thermophysical properties of sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions and their effects on fluid flow in unsaturated media}, author = {Xu, Tianfu and Pruess, Karsten}, abstractNote = {Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the.

The time to electric breakdown, and the electric field necessary to result in breakdown of solid insulation, seem to be best represented by a Weibull probability distribution. MPa: °C ( °F) MPa: – °C (– °F) Vicat softening point at 50 N: – °C (– °F) Upper working temperatureRefractive index (n): –   The power dissipated per unit volume can be expressed as: () P = ω ϵ 0 ϵ ′ (tan δ) E 2 rms = 2 π f ϵ 0 ϵ ″ E 2 rms where ϵ 0 is the permittivity of free space (×10 −12 F/m), f is the microwave frequency (Hz), and E is the electrical field strength (V/m) in the material.

For completeness, the total loss in a material is made up of the dielectric loss (from polarization. Table 1 Dielectric Strength of Gases Trichlorofluoromethane, CCl3F 1 2 Trichloromethane, CHCl3 1 2 Methylamine, CH3NH2 1 Difluoromethane, CH2F2 2 Trifluoromethane, CHF3 2 Bromochlorodifluoromethane, CF2ClBr 2 Chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF2 1 2.

In NaCl solutions, paint breakdown occurred more quickly the more dilute the solution, as shown in Fig. 1, taken from 1 kHz capacitance-time curves. This led Brasher and Nurse to conclude that the primary controlling factor in the life of the paint (the time to reach paint breakdown) was the amount of water taken up.

Fifteen weight percent sodium hypochlorite will decompose approximately 10 times faster than 5 wt% sodium hypochlorite at 25°C. The pH has a significant effect on the stability of sodium hypochlorite solutions.

Below pH 11 the decomposition of sodium hypochlorite is significant due to the shift in the equilibrium in favor of the more.

Thermal Forming Temperature - - °F (°C) Electrical Dielectric Strength Short Time ( 25” Thcikness) D volts/mil (17 KV/mm) Dielectric Constant Doictyl Phthalate N Sodium Chloride R Ether N Sodium Hydroxide R Ethyl Acetate N Sodium Hypochlorite R Ethyl Alcohol (30%) LR Sulfuric Acid (up to 30%) R.

The dielectric constant - also called the relative permittivity indicates how easily a material can become polarized by imposition of an electric field on an insulator. Relative permittivity is the ratio of "the permittivity of a substance to the permittivity of space or vacuum". Relative permittivity can be expressed as ε r = ε / ε 0 (1).

dielectric constants of common materials materials deg. f dielectric constant bronyl chloride 94 butane 30 butanol (1) 68 butanone 68 butycic anhydride 20 12 butyl chloral 64 10 butyl chloride 68 butyl oleate 77 4 butyl stearate 80 butylacetate 66 butylamine 70 butyraldehyde 79 butyric acid 68 3 butyric.

The top dielectric barrier was a perspex dielectric barrier (10 mm thickness) and the bottom dielectric barrier was a polypropylene sheet (5 mm thickness). When the potential across the gap reached the breakdown voltage, the dielectric barrier prevented the arc.

The rapid evaporation causes the temperature of the liquid to drop until it reaches the normal boiling point of °F, a similar effect occurs when water evaporates off the skin, thus cooling it.

This is why ammonia is used in refrigeration systems. Dielectric strength of glass, pyrex (borosilicate glass) Index of refraction of sodium chloride (table salt) Index of refraction of vegetable oil;power P, pressure p, refraction n, restitution cor, temperature T, time t, velocity v, volume V.

prefaces. Sodium, potassium soaps and sulfides b. Sodium naphthenes and cresylates c. Precipitated sulfides plus surfactants d.

Organic amines 3. Electrolytes which favor stability a. Salts of univalent cations b. Salts of di- and trivalent cations Water-in-oil type 1.

Formation — when soaps are precipitated from aqueous phase 2. Ionic emulsifiers a. Chloroacetyl Chloride R N Chlorobenzene N N Chlorobenzyl chloride N N Chloroform N N Chloropicrin N N Chlorosulfonic acid R N Chromic acid, 10% R R Chromic acid, 30% R R Chromic acid, 40% R C POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) CHEMICAL RESISTANCE DATA Chemical 23ºC (73ºF) 60ºC (ºF) Chromic acid, 50% N N Chromium potassium sulfate R N Citric acid R.

The composition range covered was and the temperature range °–°C. The electrode material used was vitreous carbon. Voltammetric, chronopotentiometric, and current interruption techniques were used to investigate cathodic and anodic processes.

Effect of Chloride Ion on Iron Corrosion in NaOH Solution PDF, Dielectric Breakdown. The residence time of a droplet in the dryer is only a few seconds (5–30 s). Since the material is at wet-bulb temperature for much of this time, high gas temperatures of 1, to 2,C may be used, even with thermolabile materials.

solutions of nitrate, sulphate, and chloride anions (all based on the sodium cation) were prepared with concentrations up to mg/L (approximately 10 to 20 mmol/L). A temperature bath was employed, to hold the samples at temperatu 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees Celsius w hile the dielectric.

The Electric Breakdown of Sodium Chloride R Cooper and W A Smith-Thermal breakdown caused by field-enhanced conduction in alkali halides J R Hanscomb-Formative processes in the electric breakdown of potassium bromide R Cooper and C T Elliott-Recent citations Dielectric Composites for Naval Applications E.

P. Gorzkowski and M. -J. Pan.Chlorine is a commonly used household cleaner and disinfectant. Chlorine is a potent irritant to the eyes, the upper respiratory tract, and lungs.

Chronic (long-term) exposure to chlorine gas in workers has resulted in respiratory effects, including eye and throat irritation and airflow obstruction.

No information is available on the carcinogenic effects of chlorine in humans from inhalation.A dendritic sponge which is directionally-grown on a substrate material has a high surface to volume ratio and is suitable for forming anodes for highly efficient capacitors.

A dielectric film is formed on the sponge surface by oxidizing the surface. In a preferred embodiment, the dielectric is grown on titanium sponge and is doped with oxides of Ca, Mg, Sr, Be, or Ba to improve the film's.